The current pandemic COVID-19 that has origins in central China in late December has killed more than 120,000 people in the world. About 1,929,000 people got infected with this deadly disease. The numbers are just not ready to stop! This virulent disease came to existence from a virus called ‘coronavirus’. At present, there are no vaccinations or treatments available for this disease as it is a new virus.
Therefore, with the outbreak of coronavirus, several nations are speeding up their efforts to develop vaccines for this lethal disease.
Nations & their Human Trials of Corona Vaccine
Here is the list of corona vaccines developed by different countries that entered into human trials phase:
1) mRNA-1273 vaccine by the United States
- The US started the first human trial of a vaccine for the novel coronavirus. This trial is to assess a candidate vaccine against the novel COVID-19, started in Seattle. It has increased the hopes of the global fight against this fatal disease.
- After passing different phases of the trial, around a year to 18 months will be required before the vaccine becomes accessible.
- The name of the vaccine is mRNA-1273. It has been developed by the US NIH (National Institute of Health). The NIH includes scientists and collaborators at biotechnology company Moderna. This company is located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- The funding for this vaccine has been offered by the CEPI (Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations) based in Oslo.
- The Seattle trial will look into the effect of different doses served by intramuscular injection in the upper arm of the participants. After the trial, the participants were observed for side-effects like fever and discomfort.
- Coronaviruses are spherical having spikes projecting from their surface. This gives them a crown-like form. The spike attaches to human cells enabling the virus to acquire access.
- The Moderna candidate vaccine holds the genetic details of this spike in a substance termed “messenger RNA.”
- Scientists injected the human tissue with the messenger RNA of the spike. It grows inside the body and thus, brings forth an immune response without infecting the person with the virus.
2) Remdesivir by US-based Gilead Sciences
- The US-based Gilead Sciences has made an antiviral treatment named “Remdesivir’. This treatment is now in the final stages of clinical trials in Asia.
- The Chinese doctors have mentioned this remedy as effective in fighting the deadly coronavirus.
- Only randomized trials are permitted where the scientists can know certainly whether this medicine helps or patients’ health would have improved without it.
3) DNA-based Vaccine by US Pharmacy
- A DNA-based vaccine is being created by the Inovio Pharmacy in the United States. The clinical trials will begin in the next month.
- Regeneron Pharmaceuticals is making efforts to separate coronavirus-fighting antibodies from administering intravenously. This will offer temporary immunity. The human trials will begin by summer.
4) CoroFlu Vaccine by Bharat Biotech Ltd, University of Wisconsin-Madison & US FluGen Company
- To develop a vaccine to combat coronavirus, the Biopharmaceutical firm Bharat Biotech Ltd has collaborated with the US-based company FluGen and the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
- The vaccine is called as CoroFlu. It is based on the flu vaccine of FluGen candidate M2SR. Bharat Biotech stated that the gene sequences from the coronavirus SARS-Cov2 would be added to the candidate vaccine. This will be done to offer extra immunity against COVID-19 and influenza too.
- Bharat Biotech will increase its production in Hyderabad for safety and usefulness testing in humans. The CoroFlu could be in human clinical trials by the fall of 2020, as stated by Bharat Biotech.
- Other Indian pharmacies that are working on the COVID-19 vaccine are India’s Zydus Cadila and Serum Institute.
5) Vaccine by CanSino Biological Inc and Beijing Institute of Biotechnology
- A vaccine to fight against novel coronavirus enters the human trial stage has been jointly developed by CanSino Biological Inc and the Beijing Institute of Biotechnology.
- In 2017, CanSino Biological had developed an Ebola vaccine in association with the Chinese Academy of Military Medical Science’s Bioengineering Institute.
- This candidate vaccine utilizes the non-replicating viral vector as a platform similar to the non-corona candidates like Ebola.
- It is done to create a vaccine with an ‘Adenovirus Type 5’ candidate.
- The informants stated that adenoviruses are general viruses that trigger pneumonia. It can deliver possible antigens to fuel the production of antibodies that work out against the infection.
6) Adenovirus Vector Vaccine by the Chinese Military Research Firm
- A Chinese Military research firm has become the first organization to enter the II clinical-trial stage of coronavirus vaccine. China has permitted 3 COVID-19 vaccine submissions for clinical trials.
- A research team directed by Major General Chen Wei of the Institute of Military Medicine under the Academy of Military Sciences of the People’s Liberation Army developed an adenovirus vector vaccine. This vaccine is permitted to enter the clinical trial.
- The first stage of the clinical trial ended at the end of March. The second phase began on April 12. It is the first COVID-19 vaccine in the world that goes into phase II of the human clinical trial. It has just entered Phase II of a human clinical trial with 500 volunteer participants.
- The eldest volunteer is Wuhan inhabitant named Xiong Zhengxing of 84 years who fulfilled the vaccination.
- The vaccine is developed by genetic engineering methods. Its use is to stop diseases caused by novel coronavirus infections.
- The first stage of the vaccine human clinical trial concentrates on its safety. Phase II considers on its effectiveness. Unlike the first phase, phase II enlisted more participants. It also sets up a placebo control group.
7) Johnson & Johnson
- J&J has quickened the first-in-human clinical preliminary of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in July, employing its Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies (Janssen).
- The test of the vaccine, Ad26.COV2-S, recombinant, was at first planned to start in September.
- The test held in the US and Belgium.
- J&J guarantees to convey a vaccine to the world and shield individuals wherever from this pandemic.
- More than 100 immunizations are under different phases of the test. As per the researchers, it will take 12-year and a half before an effective one accomplished.
- The organization is in talks with the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases so that it can begin the Phase 3 clinical trial.
- British pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca, who has held hands with the University of Oxford, was one of the first ones to create an immunization model that arrived at the preliminary clinical stage.
- After early perceptions, the analysts have now said that they are good to go to reveal their vaccine for the people in September or October, with creation for 2,000,000 portions in progress.
- The British drugmaker has marked a settlement to deliver up to 400 million shares for America and 100 million for the United Kingdom.
- It will produce more for low-income nations if human tests see positive outcomes going ahead.
So, the future seems bright in the quest of finding The Vaccine to stop COVID-19. Let’s keep our finger crossed and wish our scientists all the best towards this noble endeavour. For the time being let’s stay indoors, stay fit and healthy!