The current pandemic COVID-19 that has origins in central China in late December has killed more than 1.3 million people in the world. About 54 million people got infected with this deadly disease, and more than 34 million of them recovered. The numbers are just not ready to stop! In such a situation, the COVID-19 vaccine becomes all the more crucial. At present, there are various coronavirus vaccines in phase 3 trials and will be available to us soon. Besides discussing updates on COVID-19 vaccine candidates, we will also share some tips and tricks to be safe from this deadly disease without relying on any vaccine.
COVID-19 Vaccine Candidates
Here is the list of COVID-19 vaccines developed by different countries that are in trials so far:
1) Moderna’s mRNA-1273 vaccine by the United States
- Moderna’s Covid-19 vaccine is based on the same mRNA platform used by Pfizer-BioNTech.
- The vaccine has passed the three different trials so far and tested on 30,000 participants.
- It has been developed by the US NIH (National Institute of Health). The NIH includes scientists and collaborators from biotechnology company Moderna. This company is located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- The funding for this vaccine has been offered by the CEPI (Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations) based in Oslo.
- So far, hundreds of millions of dollars from the US government are invested in the form of funds.
- Moderna has reported a 94.5% efficacy rate in dealing COVID-19 in a late-stage trial.
- Modern’s COVID-19 vaccine may hit the markets if it is effective in the early half of fy2021 based on the authorization from the government.
- The vaccine will also require cold storage infrastructure.
2) Remdesivir by US-based Gilead Sciences
- The US-based Gilead Sciences has made a potential COVID-19 vaccine with the name “Remdesivir’.
- The vaccine is authorized in case of any emergency situation to treat COVID‑19 in about 50 nations.
- As per reports, Remdesivir may shorten the duration of time required to recover from the infection.
- But this COVID-19 vaccine does have side effects. They are – Increased levels of blood in the liver enzymes, nausea, low blood pressure, and sweating.
- Remdesivir may not be equipped to prevent Coronavirus; it is a drug that helps in the recovery of a COVID-19 patient within 10-11 days.
3) Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 Vaccine: JNJ-78436735
- Johnson & Johnson developed a Covid-19 vaccine, which is based on Ad26 (adenovirus vector). The same viral platform is used to develop Ebola vaccines. The same strain is used for viruses like – RSV, Zika, and HIV.
- It took just 3 months for Johnson & Johnson to graduate from phase 1 to phase 2 trial. Up to 60,000 volunteers from three continents are expected to participate.
- If the results are positive, this COVID-19 vaccine may be ready for use by early 2021. In India, the vaccine will get distributed by Biological E (J&J Partner).
- The results of the trial are expected to be out by the end of 2020.
4) COVID-19 Vaccine by Bharat Biotech Ltd
- Bharat Biotech is developing a COVID-19 vaccine by partnering with the ICMR.
- Bharat Biotech has developed an inactive vaccine based on a strain provided by the National Institute of Virology (ICMR).
- The COVID-19 vaccine has been found effective on monkeys.
- The Phase-3 trials of Covaxin have begun; the company is expected to run this trial on about 26,000 volunteers in India.
- We can expect the coronavirus vaccine is expected by the first half of 2021.
- The company has a manufacturing capacity of 100-200 million doses and is partnering with other companies to increase the capacity to 1 billion doses yearly.
- The COVID-19 vaccine must be given to patients in two doses.
5) Vaccine by CanSino Biological Inc and Beijing Institute of Biotechnology
- CanSino Biologics has also joined the race to produce a credible COVID-19 vaccine.
- This Chinese vaccine candidate is based on the Ad5 vector (human adenovirus). CanSino Biologics has partnered with the Beijing Institute of Biotechnology and the Academy of Military Medical Science.
- The COVID-19 vaccine got approval from the Chinese Military a few months back.
- This vaccine is regarded as a “specially needed drug.”
- The vaccine uses the non-replicating viral vector as the platform. This is the same as the non-corona vaccine candidates like Ebola.
- The COVID-19 vaccine is created with an ‘Adenovirus Type 5’ candidate.
- As per reports, adenoviruses are also general viruses that cause pneumonia. The viruses can deliver possible antigens that will lead to the production of antibodies against coronavirus.
- The vaccine is already approved for tests and trials in Russia, Pakistan & Saudia Arabia.
6) COVID-19 Vaccine – Sputnik V
- The Gamaleya Institute (Moscow), the Russian Defence Ministry, and the sovereign Russian Direct Investment Fund developed a COVID-19 vaccine – Sputnik V.
- The vaccine interestingly has been approved for public use even before realizing it’s effectiveness on the masses.
- The coronavirus vaccine carries the protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and is based on a modified human adenovirus as a vector.
- RDIF tied up with Dr. Reddy’s to organize clinical trials in India and offer 100 million doses of the COVID-19 vaccine.
- The results of the Sputnik V Phase 1/2 clinical trials were encouraging. It seemed to offer a good immune response.
- Nearly 40,000 participants will take part in the phase-3 trials in Russia.
- Trials are expected to happen in India, Belarus, Venezuela, and the United Arab Emirates.
- Russian scientists opine that this COVID-19 vaccine will have 92 percent effectiveness.
- Dr. Reddy’s will soon be conducting clinical trials on 1,500 volunteers in the phase-2 and phase-3 trials.
7) Coronavirus Vaccine – AstraZeneca
- British-Swedish pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca has tied-up with the University of Oxford to create an immunization model that has now concluded 3rd phase of the trial.
- This Covid-19 vaccine is based on ChAdOx1 (chimpanzee adenovirus). This is further modified to carry the coronavirus genes and deliver them into the human cells.
- The results of the trials will be out by the end of December. The approval for this COVID-19 vaccine will be by the first half of 2021.
- The COVID-19 vaccine is manufactured in partnership with the Serum Institute. As per media reports, the Serum Institute has already produced 4 crore doses. This is enough to cater at least 2 crores people for two doses.
- Serum Institute has kept the price of each this vaccine at $3. The vaccine is expected to be available early next year.
- This coronavirus vaccine is expected to have at least 70% efficacy rate.
8) COVID-19 Vaccine by Pfizer-BioNTech: BNT162b2
- Pfizer and German company BioNTech have co-developed a COVID-19 vaccine.
- The vaccine candidate is based on mRNA (genetic material), which instructs the human cells to make the SARS-CoV2 antigen, thus creating an immune response.
- Though they had a late start, the two companies have covered a lot of ground and could create history by having the first vaccine to get US approval.
- Pfizer conducted Phase-2 & 3 or clinical trials on 27th July. It is tested on 30,000 volunteers in countries like – Brazil, Argentina, and Germany.
- This COVID-19 vaccine has reported a 95% effectiveness in late stage trial.
- Pfizer expects to produce up to 50 million doses internationally and up to 1.3 billion doses in 2020 & 2021, respectively.
- The corona vaccine needs to be stored in cold storage (-94 degrees Fahrenheit), but that will lead to a rise in cost in India.
- Pfizer is now in talks with the Indian government to include this COVID-19 vaccine in its Covid efforts.
- Novavax Covid-19 vaccine is made of protein and uses a booster with a part of the virus to be effective.
- Novavax has shelled out nearly $1.5 billion in a bid to develop vaccines using the recombinant nanoparticle technology and Matrix adjuvant platform. But, they were not successful so far.
- The company is now banking firmly on its coronavirus vaccine.
- Phase-3 trial is already held in the UK on 24th September 24.
- The company is expected to initiate a phase-3 trial of the COVID-19 vaccine in the United States of America.
- The vaccine also does not require cold storage.
- The vaccine, like the others, will be expected to hit markets in 2021 and will be available in India through a partnership with the Serum Institute.
- Zydus Cadila has, too, developed a potential COVID-19 vaccine.
- The name of the vaccine is plasmid DNA. It has a genetic material of the SARS-CoV-2 proteins. They instruct human cells to create SARS-CoV2 antigen to offer immunity.
- The company claims that this process can be easily scaled up for which just Biosafety Level (BSL)-1 is needed.
- Phase–1 and 2 trials of this coronavirus vaccine is already conducted.
- The vaccine is expected to start further trials in December 2020 and can be stored in normal storage (2 – 8 Degrees).
- Zydus Cadila will only sell this covid-19 vaccine in India.
To know more on the vaccines please click on the WHO link here. Along with the vaccine updates, one must be aware of the ways to keep this coronavirus away. Prevention is the best cure, as you all know!
Coronavirus is a viral fever that has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). Coronavirus or COVID-19 is an infectious disease that has affected 217 countries and territories of the world. Countries are now researching for a suitable coronavirus vaccine.
This disease has also affected two international conveyances: the Holland America’s MS Zaandam Cruise Ship and the Diamond Princess Cruise Ship Harbored in Yokohama, Japan. This disease is the result of a newly revealed virus called ‘coronavirus.’
Basic Defensive Ways against the Novel Coronavirus
Incase of coronavirus, prevention is always better than cure. Not a single covid-19 vaccine are not live yet, and we are still not sure how they will perform. So, it is critical to adopt preventive ways to protect yourself and others from the Novel COVID-19.
1) Wash Your Hands at Intervals
The foremost way is to wash your hands frequently. You must clean your hands with an alcohol-based sanitizer or with soap and water at intervals. It will kill viruses if present on your hands. We all must ensure that we follow basic guidelines to keep the coronavirus away as a not a single COVID-19 vaccine is not available yet for public use.
2) Continue Social Distancing
Next, you must practice social distancing. Social distancing must be of at least 1 meter (3 feet) between you and anyone who is coughing or sneezing.
3) Do not Touch Eyes, Nose, and Mouth
Generally, hands touch many surfaces and get contaminated. The dirty hands can transmit the virus to your eyes, nose, or mouth. You will fall sick when the COVID-19 virus enters your body. Therefore, you must avoid touching your face, eyes, nose, or mouth with dirty hands.
4) Follow Respiratory Etiquette
All of us must follow good respiratory hygiene to protect others from viruses like flu, cold, and COVID-19. It means you must cover your mouth and nose with your flexed/bent elbow or tissue while coughing or sneezing. You must dispose of the used tissue immediately in a closed bin.
5) If Sick Stay at Home
If you feel unwell, stay at your home, and wear a mask. You must avoid unnecessary travel or large public groups. This will help to keep away from this viral fever. If you feel COVID-19 symptoms, do not panic. Simply contact the nearest national or local health authorities without any delay. Avoid smoking as it declines lungs functioning. Also, do not travel unnecessarily.
6) Avoid Unventilated Indoors
We must also take care, that our houses or the rooms or the spaces where we are staying should be well-ventilated. Air purifiers, good ACs can regulate the flow of air and maintain hygiene. If we stay healthy and follow basic rules, then covid-19 can be defeated. And, we will not need a covid-19 vaccine too.
7) Get Medical Care Early if You Experience Fever, Cough, and Breathing Difficulty
In case you have a fever, cough, and shortness of breath, seek medical care by calling in advance. It is essential to abide by the directions of national or local health authorities. By attaining medical treatment early, this ailment can be cured.
It is important to disclose your contact with an infected person or past travel history (past 14 days) to any COVID-19 affected country/region to your medical care provider. It is significant to follow the guidelines of the Government to assist in fighting this disease. Mentioned here are few immunity boosters.
So, in such times, we must lead our lives responsibly. Why rely on a COVID-19 vaccine, when certain simple steps can help us to keep the coronavirus away. As far vaccines are concerned, well, we have mentioned top 10 COVID-19 vaccines that are in advanced stages of trials. The list does not end there, as many more vaccine candidates are undergoing trials. We have included the WHO COVID-19 Vaccine Tracker, to keep you updated.
COVID-19 Live Updates